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Suchmaschinen

Volker Grassmuck

Mittwoch 17.1.2001, 14:00
im Rahmen der medientheoretischen Vorlesung für das 1. Studienjahr




Einführungen und basic resources
Theorie & Forschung
General-Purpose Suchmaschinen
Meta-Suchmaschinen

Suchmaschinen für spezielle Wissensräume
Verzeichnisse (Directories)
Ontologischen Suchmaschinen
Suchmaschinen-Tools

Praktische Tips
Recht & Suchmaschinen
 
 
 
 
 
Einführungen und basic resources
Search Engine Watch 
  • Search Engine Tutorials
  • The Major Search Engines  
  • Other Global Search Engines  
  • How Search Engines Work 
  • Search Engine Features For Webmasters 
  • Search Engine Features For Searchers 
  •  
    Search Engine Guide 
  • How To Search (externes Material)
  • Search Engine Analysis, Research & Reviews (ibid)
  • Yahoo! Searching the Web 
    CNET's Ultimate Guide to Search 
  • CNET's Search Tips
  • News aus der Suchmaschinen-Branche von Suchfibel.de

    Wolfgang Sander-Beuermann, Suchmaschinen der Zukunft, ca. 1998, im Rahmen der DFN-Expo
     
    Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, Computer Science Department,  Stanford University, The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine (über Goggle),  held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia
    Theorie & Forschung

     

     
     
     

    2000

    Stuart SOLTYSIAK, BT Advanced Communications Technology Centre, Takeshi OHTANI and Yuji TAKADA, Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Marcus THINT, Concert, An Agent-Based Intelligent Distributed Information Management System for
    Internet Resources, held at INET 2000

    David CLEARY, Ericsson, Ireland, Diarmuid O'DONOGHUE, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland, Generating a Topically Focused Virtual-Reality Internet, held at INET 2000

    Ryunosuke OHSHIMA, Shinsuke MIWA, Yoichi SHINODA, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Indexing Links of Pages to Search for "Hearts" Through the World Wide Web, held at INET 2000

  • The Namazu-Hige System decribed in this paper

  •  

     

    1999
     

    1998
    Brewster Kahle, Alexa Internet, and Professor Peter Lyman, School of Information Management and Systems, University of California, Berkeley, "Archiving Digital Cultural Artifacts:  Organizing an Agenda for Action,"  D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1998
     

    "Archiving the Internet, Brewster Kahle makes digital snapshots of Web", Online. San Francisco Chronicle. May 7, 1998.
    http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/05/07/BU3256.DTL 
     

    Wolfgang Sander-Beuermann, Meta-Strukturen und -Algorithmen in Internet-Suchmaschinen, Vortrag zum Workshop des Arbeitskreises MetaDaten der IuK Initiative Information und Kommunikation der wissenschaftlichen Fachgesellschaften in Deutschland, 11.12.1998, Bonn (Folien)

    Wolfgang Sander-Beuermann, Suchmaschinen der Zukunft, ca. 1998, im Rahmen der DFN-Expo
     

    Wolfgang SANDER-BEUERMANN und Mario SCHOMBURG, Computer Center of Lower Saxony and University of Hannover
    Germany, Internet Information Retrieval: The Further Development of Meta-Search Engine Technology, held at INET'98

    Philip COOMBS, Washington State Library, Using META Tag-Embedded Indexing for Fielded Searching of the Internet, held at INET'98

    José CARDOZA, Pedro F. GONÇALVES, Alessandro LIMA, Luciana VALADARES, Cynthia TERCERO, Silvio L. MEIRA, Ana Carolina SALGADO, Fabio Q.B. da SILVA, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil, A Framework for Developing Information Indexing, Filtering, and Searching Tools on the Internet, held at INET'98

    Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, Computer Science Department,  Stanford University, The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine (über Goggle),  held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Massimo Marchiori, The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, The limits of Web metadata, and beyond, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Olivier Liechti, Mark J. Sifer and Tadao Ichikawa, ISL, Hiroshima University, Structured graph format: XML metadata for describing Web site structure, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Qi Lu, Matthias Eichstaedt and Daniel Ford, IBM Almaden Research Center, Efficient profile matching for large scale Webcasting, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Soumen Chakrabarti, Byron Doma, Prabhakar Raghavana, Sridhar Rajagopalana, David Gibson, and Jon Kleinbergc, IBM Almaden Research Center K53, Automatic resource compilation by analyzing hyperlink structure and associated text, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Robert C. Miller, School for Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, and Krishna Bharat, Digital Systems Research Center, SPHINX: a framework for creating personal, site-specific Web crawlers, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    David Byers, Department of Computer Science, Linköpings Universitet, Full-text indexing of non-textual resources, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Wen-Syan Li and Junho Shim, C&C Research Laboratories, NEC USA, Inc., Facilitating complex Web queries through visual user interfaces and query relaxation, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Junghoo Cho, Hector Garcia-Molina and Lawrence Page, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Efficient crawling through URL ordering, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Anders Ardöa, Technical Knowledge Center and Library of Denmark, DTV, and Sigfrid Lundbergb, NetLab, Lund University Library, A regional distributed WWW search and indexing service — the DESIRE way, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Gerard Rodríguez-Mulà, Hector García-Molina and Andreas Paepcke, Digital Libraries Lab (InfoLab), Stanford University, Collaborative value filtering on the Web, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Maria Milosavljevic, Language Technology Group, Microsoft Research Institute, School of MPCE, Macquarie University, Sydney, and Jon Oberlander, Human Communication Research Centre, 2 Buccleuch Place, University of Edinburgh, Dynamic catalogues on the WWW, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Chia-Hui Chang and Ching-Chi Hsu, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Integrating query expansion and conceptual relevance feedback for personalized Web information retrieval, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Giuseppe Amatoa, Pasquale Savinoa, IEI-CNR, Pisa, and  Fausto Rabittib, CNUCE-CNR, Pisa, Multimedia document search on the Web, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Christian Kurzke, Michael Galle and Manfred Bathelt, University of Erlangen, WebAssist: a user profile specific information retrieval assistant, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Mao Lin Huang, Peter Eades and Robert F. Cohen, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Newcastle, WebOFDAV — navigating and visualizing the Web on-line with animated context swapping, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Jason Lowder and Xindong Wu, School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Wide area selection as a hyperdocument search interface, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Matthew Chalmers, Kerry Rodden and Dominique Brodbeck, Ubilab, UBS, Zürich, The order of things: activity-centred information access, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Glen Pringle, Lloyd Allison and David L. Dowe, School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Monash University, Clayton/AU, What is a tall poppy among Web pages?, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Krishna Bharat and Andrei Broder, DIGITAL, Systems Research Center, Palo Alto, A technique for measuring the relative size and overlap of public Web search engines, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia

    Michael Hersovici, Michal Jacovi, Yoelle S. Maarek, Menachem Shtalhaim, Sigalit Ur, IBM Haifa Research Laboratory MATAM, Haifa, and Dan Pelleg, Dept of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa, The shark-search algorithm — An application: tailored Web site mapping, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia
     

    Tilman Baumgärtel, Reisen ohne Karte. Wie funktionieren Suchmaschinen?, 7/98 

     

     
     

    1997
    Brewster Kahle, "Preserving the Internet", in Scientific American, March 1997. 
     

    1996
     

    1995
    M. Koster, Robots in the Web: threat or treat? ConneXions, 9(4), April 1995, 
     
     

    L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani and T. Winograd, The PageRank Citation Ranking: bringing order to the Web, manuscript in progress (zu Goggle -- pdf , o.J.) ###
     

    Eugene Gar eld. New international professional society signals the maturing of sciento-metrics and informetrics. The Scientist, 9(16), Aug 1995. 
    http://www.the-scientist.library.upenn.edu/yr1995/august/issi_950821.ht%ml.

    Massimo Marchiori. The quest for correct information on the web: Hyper search engines. In Proceedings of the Sixth International WWW Conference, Santa Claram USA, April, 1997, 1997. 
    http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER222.html.

    NLANR. A distributed testbed for national information provisioning. 
    http://ircache.nlanr.net/Cache/.

    Neeraja Sankaran. Speculation in the biomedical community abounds over likely candidates for nobel. The Scientist, 9(19), Oct 1995. 
    http://www.the-scientist.library.upenn.edu/yr1995/oct/nobel_951002.html%.

    Ellen Spertus. Parasite: Mining structural information on the web. In Proceedings of the Sixth International WWW Conference, Santa Claram USA, April, 1997, 1997.
    http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER206.html.

    Hope N. Tillman. Evaluating quality on the net. 
    http://www.tiac.net/users/hope/findqual.html.
     

    http://members.magnet.at/k.richter/inhalt/inhalt_m_suchmaschinen.html

     
    SearchEngine Watch: Search Engine News, Search Engine Tips and more about search engines
    INTERNETPANOPTIKON 
    Accessibility and Distribution of Information on the Web [Steve Lawrence, Lee Giles, NEC Research Institute] 
    ZDNet: Search Engine Reviews, Directory of Specialty Engines and Search Tutorials 
    s. linguistische Informatik Uni Leipzig, Heyer

    SPIV, 

    Google-Papers (Hugo)

    Texte auf www7.scu.edu.au nn., The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web, January 29, 1998 (zu Google) 

    An NEC Research Institute study shows that even the best of today's search engines can cover only 15% of the Web, and that all the search engines combined reach only 42% of the Internet.
    http://www.wwwmetrics.com 
     
     

    General-Purpose Suchmaschinen
    Search Engine Directory 

     
    AltaVista
    AltaVista:Main Page 
    AltaVistaPhoto Finder 
    AltaVistaHelp - Add A Page 
    AltaVista:Translations 
     

    Ameta.de
    Ask Jeeves 
     

    Austronaut.at
     
    Beaucoup! 


    Columbus-Finder.de

    Crawler.de

    Eule.de
     

    Excite 
    Excite.de 
    ExciteAdd URL 
    Excite:Magellan! 
    AddA Site Info Form 
    FireballExpress Suche 
     
    Google 
     
    GoTo! 


    Highway 61 (meta search)
     

    HotBot 
    HotBot| Add URL 
     
    InferenceFind! -- Home Page and Resource Center 
     
    Infoseek 
    Guide 
    Infoseek:Add URL 
     
    InfoSpace - Web Search 


    Jayde

    LookSmart

    Lycos

    Lycosauf deutsch 
    AddYour Site to Lycos 
     
    Magellan 
    www.mckinley.com/magellan/


    NorthernLight

    NorthernLight Search 
    RegisterYour URL with Northern Light 
     
    Rex.de
     

    Spider.de
     
    Topic
     
    WebCrawlerSearch 
    WebCrawlerHelp: Add URL 
     
    Yahoo 
    Yahoo!Deutschland 
    Web-Sitezu Yahoo! Deutschland hinzufügen 
    Web.de
    KolibriOnline GmbH - Suchmaschine 


    spider.de
     

    Aladin 
     
    Go.com (Disney)
     
     

    Meta-Suchmaschinen

    MetaCrawler, an University of Washington entwickelt
    ?? MetaCrawler

    MetaGer, DeutscheMeta-Suchmaschine, Uni Hannover 

    Metasearch

    DigiSearch

    Onramp.net

    Profusion

    Cyber411

    MetaFind

    Infind

    IntelliSeek

    Dogpile

    Mamma

    SavvySearch

    Highway61
     
     

    Suchmaschinen für spezielle Wissensräume

    disinformation 
    subculture search engine
     

    DejaNews - Power Search (Usenet Archives)
    KBX.DE, groesste deutsche Mailing-Listen-Suchmaschine 


    Mesa - MetaEmailSearchAgent, an der Uni Hannover 

    Bibliotheken

    Bilder

    Videos

    Musik
    Napster

    suchmaschinen + portals für Musik
    http://www.audionet.com/
    http://www.yack.com/categories/Music/
    http://www.onnow.com/
    http://www.ontheair.com/
    http://www.raveworld.net/portal/
    http://www.liveconcerts.com/
    http://www.globalstreams.com
     

    Software
     

    Netzkunst

    verybusy.org
     

    Recht
    Suchmaschine Recht (auf 100 Servern mit etwa 200.000 Dokumente): 

    Der Rechtsberater
    Nach eigenen Angaben Deutschlands größter und umfassendster Rechts-Index, mit derzeit
    annähernd 2.000 Verweisen und zwei relativ schnellen Suchmaschinen.

    Delphion Intellectual Property Network - Search patents of the world
     
    Berliner Linux Suchmaschine

    Bovigo - Suchmaschine für Mikronationen

    Yabba-Metasuchmaschine mit 28 einzelnen Jobbörsen
     
     
     
     

    Verzeichnisse (Directories)

     
    The Open Directory Project
    Its goal is to produce the most comprehensive directory of the web, by relying on
    a vast army of volunteer editors. Hosted by Mozilla.org.

    GOD (Global Online Directory) 
    has been around since the web's early days, UK-based
     

    GERHARD - German Harvest Automated Retrieval and Directory 

     

     

    Internet-Archive
     

    The Archive’s Internet Collections as of March 2000
    Web (1996 to now)  1 billion pages  13.8 terabytes (TB)
    FTP (1996)  50,000 sites  .05 TB
    Usenet (1996-1998)  16 million postings  .592 TB
    Alexa 

    founded in 1996 by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat. 
    1st Archive of the Web created.
    1998 Netscape incorporates Alexa into the browser with What's Related feature. 
    1999 acquired by Amazon.com
    gekoppelt mit Amazon.com (Shopping) und mySimon.com (Preisvergleich)
    normaler Search greift durch auf Yahoo, Excite, Google, Infoseek & others
    "Alexa Research provides audience measurement reporting and competitive intelligence on Web usage
    and content for e-business marketers, investors, and product managers. Analyses are based on Alexa
    panel usage and the largest existing archive of the Web."
    Alexa's Archive of the Webcontains 8 Terabytes with 466 million unique pages indexed.
     
    Telefonnummern & Adressen
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    WhoWhere (Lycos)
     
     


    Verzeichnis rund um die Themen Naturwissenschaften und Technik
    (von Amazon)
     
     
     

    Ontologischen Suchmaschinen

    Oingo 
    The Meaning-Based Search is powered an Ontology, a highly
    detailed database of over 1,000,000 words and meanings, linked by
    millions of relationships in a semantic network that is constantly changing to
    reflect the currency of everyday language. 

    http://reporter.priv.at/ 

    http://www.nameisbond.at 

    http://www.inna.at/framer.asp?inhalt=http://www.nameisbond.com/inna/inhalt_inna.html&header=search/header.asp (3D-Search)

    Soumen Chakrabartia, Byron Doma, Prabhakar Raghavana, Sridhar Rajagopalana, David Gibsonb, and Jon Kleinbergc, aIBM Almaden Research Center K53, Automatic resource compilation by analyzing hyperlink structure and associated text, held at 7th International World Wide Web Conference, 4/1998, Brisbane, Australia
     
     
     

    Suchmaschinen-Tools
    SubmitIt!: The Best Web site marketing services and tools. 
    PostMaster- Announce Your URL Everywhere! 
    Fritz-Service- Website Optimierung, Promotion und Erfolgs-&Uuml;berwachung 
    TheWeb Robots Pages 
    Welcometo The Mining Co. 
    Ultra-Submitin 40 Suchmaschinen 
     
    FreeFind 
    Externe Suchmaschine für die eigene Web-Site, ein werbefinanzierter Dienst

     

     

    Desktop-Tools
    Atomica One-Click for Windows 
    Hintergrundprogramm, das auf Alt-Klick auf jedes beliebige Wort
    den Eintrag im American Heritage Dictionary, in der Concise Columbia Electronic 
    Encyclopedia, in Wörterbüchern  div. Sprachen oder dem gesamten  Web (mit Google).

    Flyswat 
    Similar to Atomica

    BullsEye von IntelliSeek
     

    Praktische Tips

    Recherchetips für die Praxis, von Wolfgang Sander-Beuermann, MetaGer
     

    • Optimaler Suchfilter

    • Überlegen Sie, mit welchen Worten das Gesuchte am besten beschrieben wird. Welche Worte müssen in den gesuchten Texten unbedingt enthalten sein (UND-Verknüpfung), welche können vorkommen (ODER-Verknüpfung) und welche dürfen auf keinen Fall auftauchen (NOT-Operator)?

    Machen Sie sich auch darüber Gedanken, ob der exakte Wortlaut in voller Länge vorkommen muß, oder ob mit Wildcards trunkierte Wortstämme sinnvoller sind.
    • Meta-Suchmaschine
    Wählen Sie für die erste Suche am besten eine Meta-Suchmaschine aus; damit haben Sie die höchste Gewähr, auch alles zu erfassen (Checkliste). Für deutschsprachige Dokumente: http://meta.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/
    • Bedienungsanleitung
    Bevor Sie die Suche starten: Lesen Sie die Bedienungsanleitung - auch wenn's lästig ist! (Die Bedienungsanleitung steht meist unter Schaltern wie 'Help', 'Hilfe' oder 'Tips'.)
    • Branchen-Suchmaschine
    Wer mit einer Meta-Suchmaschine nicht fündig wurde, sollte mit einer konventionellen Suchmaschine weitersuchen. Hier hat man gegenüber den Meta-Suchmaschinen meist den Vorteil, genauer suchen zu können. (Die Auswahl an Operatoren und Optionen ist größer.)
    Führt auch das nicht zum Erfolg, können Sie auf das umfangreiche Verzeichnis aller Internet-Suchdienste unter http://www.yahoo.com/Computers_and_Internet/Internet/World_Wide_Web/Searching_the_Web/ zurückgreifen, um dort die für Ihre spezielle Abfrage beste Suchmaschine auszusuchen. Dann heißt es leider: noch einmal von vorne anfangen.
    • Stechnadel im Heuhaufen
    Wenn Sie alle diese Tips nicht beachten und trotzdem fündig werden, dann haben Sie die berühmte Stecknadel im Heuhaufen gefunden - auch das kommt ja durchaus vor. Sie wissen jedoch nicht, wie viele 'Stecknadeln' es sonst noch gibt, und ob die noch nicht gefundenen vielleicht aus purem Gold bestehen ...

     

    ... für suchmaschinenfreundliche Webseiten, von Inktomi:
     

    • Think carefully about key terms that your users will search on. You'll use them to construct your page. 
    • Inktomi ranks documents higher if a search term is in the title. Users are more likely to click a link if the title matches what they're looking for. Choose terms for the title that match the concept of your document. 
    • Write your description carefully. After a title, users click on a link because the description draws them in. 
    • Place your key terms in the keyword meta tag. This helps, too, although not as much as the title. If possible, customize the keywords for each page on your site instead of using one broad set of keywords on every page. 
    • Keep relevant text and links in HTML. Placing them in graphics or image maps means the search engine can't search for the text and the crawler can't follow links to your site's other pages. An HTML site map, with a link from your welcome page, can help make sure all your pages are crawled. 
    • Keep your documents reasonably short and make sure that the key concepts appear in the text. Keep words distinctive; abbreviating "opera singers" to "singers" can muddy up a search. 
    • Be judicious with frames, or, to be safe, avoid them completely. A complex frame structure confuses many web crawlers. 


    CNET's Search Tips                         
     
     

    Recht
    LG Mannheim: Urteil vom 1.8.97 zu Suchmaschinenergebnissen